➽ Emile or On Education Download ➺ Author Jean-Jacques Rousseau – Healing-oil.info

Emile or On Education All children are afraid of masks I begin by showing Emile the mask of a pleasant face Remember that, before you venture under taking to form a man, you must have made yourself a man you must nd in yourself the example you ought to offer him The Archbishop of Paris, Christophe de Beaumont, found this book dangerous , and a mischievous work it s irreligion the book was burnt by the executioner Rousseau had to leave Geneva. this book is difficult to understand and hence easy to dismiss many of the other reviews bear witness to this in the most immediate way emile is not an instructional manual on how to educate a child, nor is it a misogynistic tract that insists on the inferiority of women these suggestions fail to engage this work precisely where it becomes interesting.Emile is, and was intended to be, the modern equivalent to Plato s Republic It is a synoptic book, a sustained, comprehensive, and unified ref this book is difficult to understand and hence easy to dismiss many of the other reviews bear witness to this in the most immediate way emile is not an instructional manual on how to educate a child, nor is it a misogynistic tract that insists on the inferiority of women these suggestions fail to engage this work precisely where it becomes interesting.Emile is, and was intended to be, the modern equivalent to Plato s Republic It is a synoptic book, a sustained, comprehensive, and unified reflection on the human condition All questions of perennial importance are not only treated, but treated with assiduous care and attention to detail The devil, it turns out, is in the details of this elusive and allusive book, which gives beautiful expression to perhaps the most dubious principle in the history of philosophy that of man s natural goodness.One reviewer advises us to skip directly to the beginning of the last Book, where Rousseau offers us his views on women This strategy isthan adequate for all readers who do not care to understand Rousseau For those who wish to come to grips with what he actually wrote, however, this peculiar advice will not do If it is impossible to begin at the beginning, then begin at the very end Read everything else in light of the work s conclusion, and see how if it hangs together I recently read Durant s The Story of Philosophy In that he said that it was a pity that philosophy had become quite so obsessed with epistemology worrying about how we think rather than ethics worrying about how we can live a good life Durant saw a time in the not too distant future when philosophy would get over epistemology and become oncea kind of thinking persons self help club In many ways this book is a version of how to live a good life no, better, how to educate people I recently read Durant s The Story of Philosophy In that he said that it was a pity that philosophy had become quite so obsessed with epistemology worrying about how we think rather than ethics worrying about how we can live a good life Durant saw a time in the not too distant future when philosophy would get over epistemology and become oncea kind of thinking persons self help club In many ways this book is a version of how to live a good life no, better, how to educate people so that they are able to live a good life A lot of it might have you hoping philosophy sticks with epistemology for a wee while yet.Just about every time Jean Jacques mentions women in this expect either that your blood will boil or run cold That the smartest of men could say and believe the dumbest things is a constant source of amazement to me On the good side, like Plato he believes girls need to be educated and to play an active role in society, but he also believes that women are meant for quite other things than men and that these separate roles are decided by nature and are therefore impossible to change.Just about the only thing I knew about Rousseau prior to reading this was that he believed in the noble savage That is, that it is society that is the cause of all corruption in the world and that humans in their natural state are pretty well wonderful to each other So, it is reasonable to guess that he is going to also think that the proper way to educate people is to do so in accordance with natural principles of one kind or another And this is his lasting influence, I think.I ve recently read Dewey s Democracy and Education, and I was surprised at how often Dewey referred to Rousseau and this book I had also recently read The Social Animal, which is a bit of a homage to this book in many ways expressly so So, reading this was becoming increasingly important To understand the ongoing importance of this book to education it might be best to start with what is the opposite view to Jean Jacques Remember how bored you were for so much of your time at school Well, a lot of the reason for this was that you were being asked to remember stuff that you weren t really all that interested in If it ever occurred to you to say to your teacher, Look, enough of this shit already, I m bored out of my bloody mind can t you torture flies or something rather than torturing me Your teacher would just as likely say to you, Now, listen you snotty nosed little bastard, it is hard enough having to teach this crap to an empty headed fool like you, but what you have got to realise is that although this stuff is as boring as bat shit now, give it a couple of years and you ve no idea just how important it will all turn out to be Education, in this model, is always something for some time in the future a time that is always unspecified and will help in ways that can t really be put into words right now That kids buckle under and keep on learning in a kind of half sleep says much, muchabout power relationships within classrooms than it does about anything else The anything else here being what is important for kids to learn how is it best to teach them and what is it that they are actually learning when we force them to attend to this crap anyway Rousseau makes this point beautifully when he is discussing what happens when you teach kids the catechism When I was a child my family used to have a record of Brendan Grace doing a comedy routine about a priest asking a group of boys questions for their confirmation Not being Catholic, there was always a sense of naughtiness in getting this insight into the happenings in that other world One question was, What is the mystery of the trinity And the boy who is asked replies, in an accent the priest cannot understand, Three divine persons all in the one God The priest says he doesn t understand and the boy says, You re not supposed to understand, it s a mystery, isn t it Rousseau says that if you want to see just how effective such teaching is, such rote learning despite the utter lack of understanding or even a lack of an expectation of an understanding on the part of the student all one needs do is talk to the student about the subject outside of their learned rehearsed response Once out of role not only do you see they have understood none of it at all, but also that their understanding is actually quite off from your intention Why Well, mostly because what they are being asked to learn has no relevance or interest to them now So, at best they remember disconnected pieces, rather than anything like a consistent whole.Now, think about what we are teaching kids by teaching them this We are teaching them that it isn t important for them to understand anything properly, but that they will get a pat on the back if they have been able to parrot back what appear to be meaningless jumbles of words inor less the right order.What the child understands doesn t really matter in the least, what matters is that they have their heads get filled with knowledge that will make sense sometime.So, is there an alternative to this Well, according to Rousseau there is and that is to teach according to what the child is interested in learning and needs to know now And if you want to teach the child something that they are currently not interested in learning, then it is up to you to find a way to make learning that thing essential for the child in the here and now For example, he talks about getting his student lost in the woods so that he can teach the child the importance of knowing how to find directions from the position of the sun and therefore how the earth travels around the sun and how the sun shifts position in the sky according to the time of the year The point is, as anyone with kids knows, kids live in the present If that is the case, you really do need to teach them in the present too When people see the point of something then learn is as easily as breathing That is what we humans do we are learning machines But it is so easy to make it hard for kids to learn and to convince them they are not good learners And the best way to achieve this is to try to force them to learn stuff they have no interest in or even any way of working out what possible interest they might have in it.Now, all that is the good bit of this book You have to know that this book was written for a very small group of people that is, nice people who are able to afford servants This is about how to go about the education of boys, but not any boys, only a very few well off boys It wouldn t take a lot to be turned off this book entirely The long and rather boring discussion of religion, the sexism, the endless marriage preparations and the classism weren t really my cup of tea All the same, the bits of this that are good are particularly good I read this book as research for a writing project of my own Once finished, I had no idea how I ought to rate it There is some brilliant writing here, and I highlighted a lot of eminently quotable passages Certainly I can understand why the French adore some of Rousseau s ideas about education But even if one can get past the irony of Rousseau the child abandoner writing in very smug tones how the young ought to be raised and educated, there s the little fact that he was sexist above and I read this book as research for a writing project of my own Once finished, I had no idea how I ought to rate it There is some brilliant writing here, and I highlighted a lot of eminently quotable passages Certainly I can understand why the French adore some of Rousseau s ideas about education But even if one can get past the irony of Rousseau the child abandoner writing in very smug tones how the young ought to be raised and educated, there s the little fact that he was sexist above and beyond the call of duty The thoughts on education that the French praise to the skies are all thoughts on the education of boys When he does bother to mention girls, he stresses that their education ought to lie in teaching them how to be utterly submissive and obedient Because if you re nice enough to that wife beater your parents married you off to, he ll stop hitting you And if he doesn t stop hitting you, well, I guess you weren t nice enough.The fact that I m paraphrasing shouldn t lead you to conclude that I m exaggerating Yes, I know Rousseau lived and died in the eighteenth century So did Mary Wollstonecraft So Read this if you re interested in French history, the history of education, or Rousseau s bizarre life And don t be fooled by the many people who refer to this book as a novel It isn t It s a work in which Rousseau presents his ideas about education, and at a certain point, says, Let s pretend I was hired to be the tutor of a young man say his name is Emile Here s what that might be like, and here are some conversations I can imagine having with this boy Rousseau never claimed to be writing a novel He simply alternates between the autobiographical and the hypothetical The Educated Human26 January 2016 To say that Rousseau has a low opinion of humanity is an understatement he absolute despises the corrupting nature of humans and the effect upon the world around them This is clearly summed up in his opening statement God makes all things good man meddles with them and they become evil Actually, Rousseau has an interesting view of reality the world is initially good and people are free however from the moment of birth the corrupting influence of humanity c The Educated Human26 January 2016 To say that Rousseau has a low opinion of humanity is an understatement he absolute despises the corrupting nature of humans and the effect upon the world around them This is clearly summed up in his opening statement God makes all things good man meddles with them and they become evil Actually, Rousseau has an interesting view of reality the world is initially good and people are free however from the moment of birth the corrupting influence of humanity comes to the fore and seeks to enslave the child this book is a treatise on how to insulate the child from this corrupting influence and thus to create a new and evolved human through education The problem with Rousseau is that he does not seem to recognise that human corruption is a part of their nature as opposed to something that comes about through interaction with society, and as such despite being isolated from society the child will still be corrupt In a way it is sort of like a genetic disorder that is passed down through the parents, meaning that if the parents are corrupt then the child will inherit that corruption despite the parents attempting to insulate the child from the corrupting nature of society As you have probably guessed, this text and it is a pretty long one mind you Rousseau himself indicated in his foreword that he initially intended it to be quite short but unfortunately it blew out to beyond all proportions is about the best way to educate a child, however it goes beyond that to theorise on how to craft and mould the child into becoming what Rousseau considered to be an enlightened human, and to do so he realises that one cannot simply isolate the child from society for there must come a time when the child will partake in society, particularly when it comes time for the child to marry However the conclusion is the belief that if the child is educated properly, right up to and including marriage, then it will form the foundations of a new and enlightened culture as the educated child will then pass that knowledge and training onto his children The Education System I m going to have to say that I m not hugely familiar with the system of education back in Rousseau s days, however it was certainly not the system that we are exposed to today My understanding was that back in Rousseau s day children were educated through the use of private tutors and apprenticeships If a child were highborn that is a member of the aristocracy then private tutors would be brought in to teach the children, and in many cases this education simply involved how one was to conduct oneself in such social circles In fact I would go as far as to suggest that a lot of the aristocracy of these days probably weren t educated, or at least they weren t educated in the way we understand education However they no doubt were literate, and would have been exposed not just to the teachings of the church, but also to the writings of the ancients and in some cases contemporaries, unless their writings had been banned, which was not all that uncommon The lower classes tended to be apprenticed and their training would be similar to what we understand as on the job training The idea of going to school and deciding on a career simply did not exist one s career had been decided by birth and that career was either in the family business, or based upon when one was born as well as one s gender Females generally would not be given the same education as where the men, and they certainly weren t taught to be literate One of the problems I found with this book though was that this sexism does permeate quite deeply, despite the fact that Rousseau does state that with the exception of some physiological differences men and women are basically the same However that does not necessarily mean that our modern system of education is better in fact I would have to argue that in many cases it is worse I suspect that if Rousseau were to be grabbed by Bill and Ted and taken to modern day San Dimas he would be absolutely appalled isn t it interesting that when the people of historical significance explored modern day San Dimas they were all pretty impressed The thing with our modern system of education is that it is a by product of industrialisation Children are all seen as similar products and are put through a machine with the idea of them emerging identical at the end In a sense it not only assumes that everybody is the same, it works on the principle that one can grade a student s performance on a standardised test There is one big problem with that, as is exemplified by this cartoon Okay, I went through school before they came out with this wonderful idea of standardised testing, however there were still elements of it during the time I was there The idea of having an exam at the end of every year, or even tests throughout the year, worked on the principle that everybody could write a perfect essay, or everybody was good at maths The problem is that this is simply not true I remember when one teacher said to the class that when he handed out an essay assignment that all of the essays when submitted were to be identical to each other In fact he even wrote the entire essay on the board to illustrate what he expected Needless to say I dropped that class and went on to do maths and science It is not necessarily the teacher s fault though as the teacher can only work with the tools given to them and the fact that teachers are severely underpaid is a problem in and of itself I personally believe that they should be given a lotcredit than they are by society, but I suspect that modern society hates teachers because as children we hated our teachers In a way this is what it has become However, one thing that I will point out before I move on is that one of the ideas, especially for the later years of highschool and university, is that the student is supposed to becomespecialised That is the earlier years brings out the child s strengths and weaknesses, and in the later years the child then pursues subjects that play on the child s strengths Of course I could also write about how the modern education system is also a form of mass indoctrination, but I will leave it at that for the time being On Religion The main focus of this book is about education, but Rousseau needed to touch upon a number of aspects of his society to be able to explain this philosophy on how to train somebody to become an enlightened individual, and one of these areas is religion I have noticed that many seem to believe Rousseau to be, while not an atheist, at least a humanist, but this could not be further from the truth The idea of humanism is that humanity is the peak of the evolutionary ladder and that which humanity creates is worth paying attention In fact our understanding of society and how to progress should come out of the whole body of human knowledge The problem is that Rousseau considers humans to be thoroughly corrupt, meaning that anything that is written by a human simply cannot be trusted, and this is very much the case with religion Rousseau believes in the existence of God, however he points out that the problem with knowing the characteristics of god simply comes down to referring to human knowledge, which he considers corrupt While be points out that in Europe at the time as well as across the globe there were all these groups claiming that their understanding of religion was the one true way it all boils down to one thing human understanding, which is untrustworthy Rousseau is basically a natural theologian in that his understanding of any spiritual reality can only come through observing nature, however he the goes on to conclude his treatise on religion by referring back to Christianity, and in fact pointing to Christ His belief is that the horrendousness of Christ s death, and the fact that he was mocked and brutalised, adds to the truth behind Christ s claims simply because it is so absurd The idea of God becoming a human is ridiculous enough, but subjecting himself to arrest, mockery, an unjust trial, and probably one of the most barbaric forms of execution is outright bizarre In fact his suggestion is that it is so bizarre that it simply has to be true Mind you, he does touch on the idea of fundamentalism, and he does provide a warning that one needs to be very circumspect when talking about religion and belief systems as a whole because there is a danger that the child, if not taught properly, or even not taught at all, would become a fanatic The Social Sphere Another idea that I picked up from this book was how decadent Rousseu s viewed the world of the French aristocrats It was a world of high society, of debauchery, and of political machinations No doubt this came about through their learning, particularly with the ancients This is why Rousseau suggests one should be really circumspect on what they should be taught, and that there is only a handful of ancient texts that the student should be exposed to In a way life in the upper crust of French society at the time was little different to that among the Roman patricians While it has been a while since I have seen it, the film which is based on a book Dangerous Liaisons paints a very clear picture of what it was like This is probably why Rousseau, when he comes to the end of the book, suggests that his protegee and his wife should leave the city and live in a modest cottage in the country In his mind the city is one massive cesspit of corrupting influence, and despite all of the work in training Emile, he knew that if Emile were to remain in the city, especially Paris where much of the politics would be played out then all of this hard work would be undone in short time As mentioned, Rousseau believed humanity to be corrupt, and when humans got together in large numbers then this corruption would increase exponentially Marriage I wish to finish off here, namely because I found that this was probably the most unrealistic aspect of the treatise The idea is that there will come a time when Emile will need to marry, and as such for the experiment to work Rousseau will need to find what I considered to be the perfect woman However there is one problem So, my big question is, did Rousseau or even somebody later actually put this into practice, and did the whole experiment crash and burn when it came time for Emile to marry How is it that the same book can at one and the same time be so fascinating and so wrong headed The author of Emile indicates that to bring up a child, the parent must be a lifelong tutor to the exclusion of any schools or spouses or relatives or anyone else Rousseau deals with a fictional son named Emile During the course of the book, he shows his influence from infancy to early marriage.Perhaps such a controlling type of mentorship was possible only in a rural society and Rousseau not o How is it that the same book can at one and the same time be so fascinating and so wrong headed The author of Emile indicates that to bring up a child, the parent must be a lifelong tutor to the exclusion of any schools or spouses or relatives or anyone else Rousseau deals with a fictional son named Emile During the course of the book, he shows his influence from infancy to early marriage.Perhaps such a controlling type of mentorship was possible only in a rural society and Rousseau not only confines himself to rural society, but he attacks urban society As I sit here in Los Angeles, surrounded by 10 million other Angelenos, I must admit that such an education as Rousseau describes is not only impracticable, but it would give rise to early rebellion and a broken family.Now, one asks is this the way that Rousseau raised his own children Not at all The sad fact is that the children that Rousseau fathered were all given up to orphanages, as described by the author in his Confessions.So what then is the attraction of this book For perhaps the first time in Western Civilization, a man of penetrating intellect has bothered to systematize education that is separate from religious influences Rousseau gives a nod to religion, but he prefers natural religion, the religion of common sense He attacks the whole notion of catechisms and learning by any other means than by deduction from observable facts.Imagine to yourself Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin sitting thousands of miles away across the North Atlantic reading this book and dreaming of a new nation founded upon inalienable rights We all came from Rousseau He was perhaps only a way station to life as we know it, but he was powerfully influential A man of intellect and feeling, he was at the same time prey in his life to persecution and jealousy to which he massively overreacted I loved reading this book It was a difficult read, but I feel a rewarding one You see, I have always believed that one could learn as much from writers with whom one disagrees than from anyone else Rousseau raises the right issues It is just that he does not always provide the right solutions h 966 mile or, On Education, Jean Jacques RousseauEmile, or On Education or mile, or Treatise on Education is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man written by Jean Jacques Rousseau, who considered it to be the best and most important of all his writings 1972 1328 966 mile or, On Education, Jean Jacques RousseauEmile, or On Education or mile, or Treatise on Education is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man written by Jean Jacques Rousseau, who considered it to be the best and most important of all his writings 1972 1328 299 1337 1348 295 1360 1380 408 9646205208 1382 1386 408 9789646205208 1393 1389 351 9786005675047 18 1349 568 1349 1371 5681348 656 1392 632 9786006988016 Alan Bloom S New Translation Of Emile, Rousseau S Masterpiece On The Education And Training Of The Young, Is The First In Than Seventy Years In It, Bloom, Whose Magnificent Translation Of Plato S Republic Has Been Universally Hailed As A Virtual Rediscovery Of That Timeless Text, Again Brings Together The Translator S Gift For Journeying Between Two Languages And Cultures And The Philosopher S Perception Of The True Meaning And Significance Of The Issues Being Examined In The Work The Result Is A Clear, Readable, And Highly Engrossing Text That At The Same Time Offers A Wholly New Sense Of The Importance And Relevance Of Rousseau S Thought To UsIn Addition To His Translation, Bloom Provides A Brilliant Introduction That Relates The Structure And Themes Of The Book To The Vital Preoccupation S Of Our Own Age, Particularly In The Field Of Education, But Also Generally To The Current Concerns About The Limits And Possibilities Of Human Nature Thus In This Translation Emile, Long A Classic In The History Of Western Thought And Educational Theory, Becomes Something A Prescription, Fresh And Dazzling, For The Bringing Up Of Autonomous, Responsible That Is, Truly Democratic Human Beings


About the Author: Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean Jacques Rousseau remains an important figure in the history of philosophy, both because of his contributions to political philosophy and moral psychology and because of his influence on later thinkers Rousseau s own view of philosophy and philosophers was firmly negative, seeing philosophers as the post hoc rationalizers of self interest, as apologists for various forms of tyranny, and as pl Jean Jacques Rousseau remains an important figure in the history of philosophy, both because of his contributions to political philosophy and moral psychology and because of his influence on later thinkers Rousseau s own view of philosophy and philosophers was firmly negative, seeing philosophers as the post hoc rationalizers of self interest, as apologists for various forms of tyranny, and as playing a role in the alienation of the modern individual from humanity s natural impulse to compassion The concern that dominates Rousseau s work is to find a way of preserving human freedom in a world where human beings are increasingly dependent on one another for the satisfaction of their needs This concern has two dimensions material and psychological, of which the latter has greater importance In the modern world, human beings come to derive their very sense of self from the opinion of others, a fact which Rousseau sees as corrosive of freedom and destructive of individual authenticity In his mature work, he principally explores two routes to achieving and protecting freedom the first is a political one aimed at constructing political institutions that allow for the co existence of free and equal citizens in a community where they themselves are sovereign the second is a project for child development and education that fosters autonomy and avoids the development of the most destructive forms of self interest However, though Rousseau believes the co existence of human beings in relations of equality and freedom is possible, he is consistently and overwhelmingly pessimistic that humanity will escape from a dystopia of alienation, oppression, and unfreedom In addition to his contributions to philosophy, Rousseau was active as a composer and a music theorist, as the pioneer of modern autobiography, as a novelist, and as a botanist Rousseau s appreciation of the wonders of nature and his stress on the importance of feeling and emotion made him an important influence on and anticipator of the romantic movement To a very large extent, the interests and concerns that mark his philosophical work also inform these other activities, and Rousseau s contributions in ostensibly non philosophical fields often serve to illuminate his philosophical commitments and arguments


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